Cameroon is a Central African country located at the bottom of the Gulf of Guinea, between the 2nd and 13th degrees of north latitude and the 9th and 16th degrees of east longitude. The country covers an area of 475,650 square kilometers. It has a triangular shape that stretches south to Lake Chad for nearly 1,200 km while the base stretches from west to 800 km. It has a 420 km maritime border to the southwest along the Atlantic Ocean. It is bounded to the west by Nigeria, to the south by the Congo, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea, to the east by the Central African Republic, and to the northeast by Chad. Finally, at the top of the triangle, to the north, it is capped by Lake Chad.
The natural environment of Cameroon is diverse. It is said of this country that it is Africa in miniature.
Indeed, several types of natural regions contribute to the geographic diversity of the country.
The forest south (Center, East, Littoral, South and South-West regions) is located in the maritime and equatorial zones. This area is characterized by dense vegetation, a vast hydrographic network and a hot and humid climate with abundant rainfall. This region is suitable for growing cocoa, oil palm, bananas, rubber and tobacco, etc. It is home to the two largest cities in the country: Douala (first city, main port and economic capital with its commercial and industrial activities), Yaoundé (second city and political capital). There are also major urban centers such as Edéa, characterized by its heavy industry and its hydroelectric power station, Limbe, seat of the petroleum industry and Kribi, terminal of the Chad Cameroon pipeline.
The western highlands (western and northwestern regions), whose average altitude is greater than 1,100 m, form a region rich in volcanic soil favorable for agriculture (coffee, market gardeners, etc. .). The vegetation is less dense there than in the forest south and the cool climate which reigns there is favorable for the hatching of all kinds of activities. In addition, the high population density compared to the national average makes it one of the first areas of emigration. The main cities are Bafoussam, Bamenda and the university city of Dschang. North Sudanese Sahel (Adamawa, North and Far North regions) is a region of savannas and steppes. Outside the Adamawa plateau where the climate is more temperate, the rest of this region is characterized by a hot and dry tropical climate with precipitation becoming more and more limited as one approaches Lake Chad. . The region is suitable for raising cattle and growing cotton, onion, millet, potato, white yam and peanuts.